Large storm waves pose a challenge to wave power developers. These are some of the challenges to deploying wave power devices:
- Efficiently converting wave motion into electricity; generally speaking, wave power is available in low-speed, high forces, and the motion of forces is not in a single direction. Most readily-available electric generators operate at higher speeds, and most readily-available turbines require a constant, steady flow.
- Constructing devices that can survive storm damage and saltwater corrosion. Likely sources of failure include seized bearings, broken welds, and snapped mooring lines. Knowing this, designers may create prototypes that are so overbuilt that materials costs prohibit affordable production.
- High total cost of electricity. Wave power will only be competitive when the total cost of generation is reduced. The total cost includes the primary converter, the power takeoff system, the mooring system, installation ,maintenance costs, and the cost of electricity delivery.
- Impacts on the marine environment, such as noise pollution, could have negative impact if not monitored. Although the noise and visible impact of each design varies greatly.
- In terms of social-economic challenges, wave farms can have a negative result in witch the displacement of commercial fishermen could be moved from productive fishing grounds. The change in the pattern of beach sand nourishment, and may represent hazards to navigation.